The microphone, this instrument pretty much sums up the beginning of the process of recording. Whether be it audio, instruments or a full orchestra put together all of these go through the microphone, without which everything is pretty much a dead end. Microphones are basically the other end your speaker if you want good to come out of it, it starts with having a good input device. Using similar components of a speaker like the diaphragms that causes vibrations on both ends thus you can describe music production as manipulating contents between to vibrating diaphragms. This makes the microphone pretty much important.
Read more here: http://www.musictech.net/2017/10/beginners-guide-microphones/